مرض فقر الدم أسبابه وأعراض وعلاجه والوقاية منه!

??? ??? ???? (???????? - Anemia) ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ???????. ???????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ???????.

?????? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???: ????? ???????????? (HGB): ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????????? ?? ????
???????????? (HCT) (????? ?????): ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????.

?????? ????? ???? ??????? (RBC count): ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?????.

* ????? ??? ?????:

???? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???????:

1. ??????? ??????: 

 ????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?? 13.5 g/dL ?????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? 41 ??????? ??????? ????????????.
????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?? 12 g/dL ?????? ???????????? ???? ??? ?? 36 ??????? ??????? ????????????.
???? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????:

* ????????: ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ??? ????????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?????. ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?????????.

* ????? ?????????: ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?????????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?????.
????????? ?? ??? ??????: ????? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? 0.5-1.0 g/dL ???????? ?? ????? ???????? ????? ???????.

* ???? ????? ?????: ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ???????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????.

* ?????????: ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ?????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ????? ???????.
????? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??. ?? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????.

????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??????. ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ???????? (Food additives) ???? ???????? ??????. ??? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????.

* ????? ??? ????:

?????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????????. ???? ????? ??? ????? (???????? ?? ??????) ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ???????.

????? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??????. ????? ???????? ?? ????:

1. ?????
2. ???? ??????
3. ????? ??? ???? ???? ?????
4. ????? ??? ???????
5. ??? ??????
6. ?????  ?? ?????
7. ??????
8. ????????
9. ?????? ?? ?????? ?????????
10. ???? ?????? ????????
11. ??????
12. ?????? ???? ????? (?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????)
13. ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????.

* ????? ?????? ??? ??? ????:

????? ??? ????????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???????.
????? ???? ?? ???? ???? "????????" (???????????? / ????????? – Plasma) ??? ?????. ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ????????:

1. ????? / ????? ???? ??????? (Leucocytes) - ??? ??????? ????? ?????? (Infections).
2. ??????? / ???????? ??????? (Platelet/ Thrombocyte) - ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???????.
3. ????? / ????? ???? ??????? (Erythrocytes) - ??? ??????? ???? ???????? (Oxygen) ?? ???????? ?????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????. ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????????? (??????? ?????????) ????? ??????? ???? ????. ????? ???? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?????.
4. ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ???????????? (????? ???? - Hemoglobin)? ??? ?????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? (??????). ????????????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? (???) ???????? ?? 5. ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? (Carbon dioxide) ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????.

6. ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? (???? ????? - Bone marrow)? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????. ??? ??? ????? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????. ???????? ??? ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ??????????????? (EPO)  ????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???????. ????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? 110 ??? 120.

7. ????? ????? ??????? ?? ???????? ? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????.

* ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????????:

1. ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? (Iron deficiency anemia): ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? 2 – 3% ?? ???? ???????? ??????? ????????. ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?????. ??? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????????????. ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???????. ???????? ??: ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????.

2. ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????????? (Vitamin Deficiency Anemia): ???????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ??? ??????? (Folic acid) ???? ??????? "? 12" (Vitamin B12) ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???????. ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???????? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???????. ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? B-12  ???? ????.

3. ??? ???? ?????? ???? ????: ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? (Cancer)? ?????? (??????? ????? ??????? ??????? - AIDS)? ??? ?????? (Gout)? ??? ???? (Crohn’s disease)? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ????. ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ????.

4. ??? ???? ???????????????? ??(Aplastic anemia): ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????. ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ???? ??????? (????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????). ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????. ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? (Immune system).

5. ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????: ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? (????????? - Leukemia)? ??? ?????? ??????? (Myelodysplasia) - ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???????? – ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ?????. ??????? ?????????? ?????????- ?? ??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??????. ??? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? (Multiple myeloma)? ???????? ??????? ?????? (Myeloproliferative disorders)? ????? ?????? (lymphoma)? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??.

6.??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? (Hemolysis): ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????.
????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ????. ?????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? (Antibodies) ?????? ???? ???????? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????. ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??????? (Antibiotics) ????????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? (????????)? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???????.

7. ??? ???? ??????? (Sickle cell anemia): ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????????. ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???????????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ??????. ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???????.

* ?????? ????: ????? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ??????

* ????? ???? ?? ??? ????:

???? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??? ?????????? (Thalassemia)? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????????????. ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????????.
????? ????? ????? ??? ???? ????:

1. ??? ???????: ?? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ???? ????. ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???????.
2. ????? ????????? ?? ???????: ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? (Celiac disease)? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????. ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?????.
3. ?????? ??????? (???? ????? - Menstrual cycle): ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ???????. ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????.
4. ?????: ?????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???????????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????.
5. ????? ?????? ?????: ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ?????? (Renal failure) ?? ?????? ?????? (Hepatic failure)? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? "??? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????" (??? ???? ?????? ???? ????). ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???????. ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ????? (Peptic ulcer)? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??????.
6. ????? ??????: ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????????? ???? ???? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????.

* ??????? ????????:

?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???
??? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????:

1. ??? ????? (????? ??????): ?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????.
2. ????? ?? ?????: ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???? ???????? - ?????? ??? ????? (Arrhythmia). ??? ???? ??? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ????. ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??? "??? ?????" (Heart failure).
3. ??? ???????: ????? ??????? B - 12 ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ????.
?????? ?? ?????? ?????????: ????? ?? ??????? B - 12 ?? ???? ??? ??? ?????? ???????.
4. ?????: ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ????? ????????? ??? ??? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ??????. ????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????.

* ????? ??? ???? - ????????:

???? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?????? (CBC - Complete blood count)? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ????? / ????? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ???????????? ?? ????. ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??? 38.8 ? 50 ?????? ??? ?????? ???? 34.9 ? 44.5 ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ???????????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? 13.5 ? 17.5 ????? ????????? ??? ?????? ???? 12 ? 15.5 ????? ????????? ??? ?????? .

?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ???:

?????.
?????.
?????.
????? ??? ???????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ????. ??? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???????. ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????.

??? ???????????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????.

* ???? ??? ???? - ????????

????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????? ???? ????:

1. ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????: ??? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? (??????) ??????.
2. ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ???????????: ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? B - 12? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??????.
3. ???? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????: ??? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????.
4. ???? ??? ???? ?????????: ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? (Intravenous feeding) ???? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????.
5. ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?????: ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ????????? ????????? (Chemotherapy) ???? ??? ???? ???.
6. ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????: ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? (????????) ???????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ???? ???????.
7. ???? ??? ???? ???????: ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ??????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????.

* ??????? ?? ??? ???? - ????????:

??????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ???
???? ????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?????.

????? ???????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ???? ????? ???:

-    ??????
-    ??? ???????
-    ??????? B 12
-    ??????? C
???????? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?? ???????. ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?????.

???????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????. 

* ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????????.

????? ??? ???

التعديل الأخير تم: 27/12/2016

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